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can we use this?

Discussion in 'GENERAL Wireless Discussion' started by Gabriel, Jul 31, 2004.

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  1. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    New antenna technology transmits excitement
    Rob Vincent, a technician in the University of Rhode Island’s Physics Department, proves the adage that necessity is the mother of invention.

    And his invention—new technology that shrinks the size of antennas—is attracting attention from around the world. Moreover, within a week of a press release announcing the invention, 25 potential licensees from the military, auto, home security, aeronautics, and telemetering industries contacted the URI Research Office, eager for details.

    An amateur radio operator since he was 14, Vincent has always lived in houses situated on small lots. Because he couldn’t erect a large antenna on a confined property, he has been continually challenged over the years to find a way to get better reception.

    “I was always tinkering in the basement. Thank goodness, my parents were tolerant. I can still remember my poor father driving up our driveway after a hard day’s work to see wires wrapped around the house,” Vincent recalls.

    “The Holy Grail of antenna technology is to create a small antenna with high efficiency and wide bandwidth,” explains Vincent. “According to current theory, you have to give up one of the three—size, efficiency, or bandwidth—to achieve the other two.”

    After decades of experimentation, combined with a 30-year engineering career and Yankee ingenuity, Vincent has invented a revolutionary antenna technology. The distributed -load, monopole antennas are smaller, produce high efficiency, and retain good to excellent bandwidth. And they have multiple applications.

    With this technology it will be possible to double, at minimum, the range of walkie-talkies used by police, fire, and other municipal personnel. Naval ships, baby monitors, and portable antennas for military use are other applications. An antenna could be mounted on a chip in a cell phone and be applied to wireless local area networks. Another application deals with radio frequency identification, which is expected someday to replace the barcode system.

    “It could even make the **** Tracy wrist radio with all the features, such as Internet access, a possibility,” Vincent says.

    The inventor pursued his quest to build a better antenna in earnest eight years ago when he and his significant other moved into a house situated on a 50-foot by 100-foot lot in Warwick. There was nothing on the commercial market that could fit the lot that would provide the performance Vincent needed to be heard in distant lands and that would be acceptable to his neighbors. All the small antennas being sold were inefficient and lacked bandwidth, which resulted in low performance and high frustration.

    Vincent looked at the techniques that were currently used to reduce antenna size and realized something was missing in the way everyone was approaching the problem.

    He began to model various combinations into a computer program called MathCad. His first attempt produced a 21 MHz band antenna that was 18 inches high. Normally, antennas for this band are 12 to 24 feet high.

    Vincent installed the antenna in his back yard. The legal limit that amateurs can operate is 1,000 watts with the norm being 100 watts. The amateur radio operator experimented with 5 to 10 watts. He reached a station in Chile and made contacts in various European countries. Meanwhile he kept adding power until it reached 100 ywatts. That’s when things suddenly went bad. Walking outside in the backyard, he understood why. The antenna had melted.

    After examining the molten matter, Vincent wasn’t discouraged. This was only a small model and not designed to handle much power. The part of the antenna that failed proved to be the key to the design. After analyzing the failure, Vincent realized that he was able to transform a lot of current along the antenna with even relatively low power.

    “Antennas radiate by setting up large amounts of current flow through various parts of their structure,” he says. “The larger the current the more radiation and the better the output of the antenna.”

    Vincent went back to the drawing board and continued to improve the technology. Relying on his nearly 30 years at Raytheon Co. and at KVH Industries in Middletown R.I., which provided him with a diversified background in electronics and electronic systems, Vincent overcame a myriad of problems and succeeded.

    He established three test sites for various prototypes. Antennas were placed in Westport, Mass. in a salt marsh, the best ground for transmission and reception. Another set of antennas was placed on rocky ground in Cumberland, R.I., the worst kind of site, and at a Warwick site which is in between the two in terms of grounding. The antennas, which resemble flagpoles, worked well at all locations.

    Tests confirmed that Vincent has created antennas at one third to one ninth of their full size counterparts. Normally smaller antennas are only 8 to 15 percent efficient. Vincent’s antennas achieved 80 to 100 percent efficiency as compared to the larger antennas.

    A patent is pending on Vincent’s technology. The inventor has made the University of Rhode Island and its Physics Department partners that will benefit from any revenue his invention earns. “The University and its Physics Department have been very supportive and given me time and space to work on this project,” says Vincent who was recently presented the 2004 Outstanding Intellectual Property Award by URI’s Research Office. “I couldn’t have done this without the University’s support. It’s only fair that it share in the profits.”

    By Jan Wenzel
     
  2. Swordmasterblack

    Swordmasterblack Junior Member
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    My Phone:
    Motorola V505/v551/v3m
    Wireless Provider(s):
    Cingular/AT&T Wireless Verizon Wireless

    its kinda funny i had the same windows conflict error with one saying i was online, and the other saying i wasn't, and i wasn't using an air card i had my 4400 tethered to both my laptop (not running xp but windoze 98) and my desktop (dual system both xp and 2000 loaded). come to think of it i got the same error when i tethered it to my pda. i'm thinking it isn't a problem with sierra's equipment or programing, but with the network itself, or vzw's software (which shouldn't effect my pda since i don't have it on there and use the palm V os but it does). It isn't a location thing either because i am on the otherside of the country in CT
     
    Stop hovering to collapse... Click to collapse... Hover to expand... Click to expand...
  3. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    I understand!
     
  4. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    SiGe/Si Terahertz Lasers and Detectors for Space-Based Communications and Sensing

    Modeling and simulation indicate that cryo-cooled multi-quantum-well SiGe/Si heterostructures will efficiently emit and detect 4 to 10 terahertz radiation.
    AFRL's Sensors Directorate, Electromagnetics Technology Division, Sensor Integration Technology Branch, Hanscom AFB MA
    Practical solid-state sources and detectors do not currently exist for the 4 to 10 terahertz (THz) range, also known as the 30 to 75 µm very long wavelength infrared region. As an initial step towards remedying this deficiency, the Sensors Directorate modeled and simulated compact and innovative silicon (Si)-based sources and detectors for 4-10 THz, a spectral region rich in new types of Air Force imaging, communications, and threat warning applications. Space-based examples include satellite communications and sensing via point detectors or 2-D pixel arrays. Secure, short-distance communication through the atmosphere is another Air Force application.

    This work indicates that intersubband absorption in shallow p-type silicon germanium (SiGe) quantum wells will give high-D sensing, provided the devices are cooled to 4 to 20°K. Modeling shows the SiGe THz sensors can be strained-layer multi-quantum wells (MQWs), grown upon silicon or SiGe-buffered Si substrates, as illustrated in Figure 1.

    A proposed new type of Si-based THz laser, the quantum staircase laser illustrated in Figure 2, consists of identical quantum wells. Holes are electrically injected into the upper subband of the first well, and each well experiences an N2 > N1 population inversion that is local-in-k-space. This is achieved between the light-hole-1 (LH1) and heavy-hole-1 (HH1) subbands because, on buffered silicon, the LH1 subband in SiGe exhibits an electron-like (inverted) effective mass at kx = 0.015 Å-1. The selection rule for the LH-HH THz transition is that surface normal emission is allowed, as shown in the array of THz vertical-cavity lasers in Figure 3.

    http://www.afrlhorizons.com/Briefs/0012/SN9908.html
     
  5. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    2.5 / 3G Over Wi-Fi and 4G
    5th March 2003

    Despite qualms about its early success after years of promise, 2.5G and 3G technologies will still show the best long-term results when it comes to wireless data access. However, 4G and Wi-Fi technologies will also grow as high-speed wireless data systems become varied and operators choose an air-interface matching the varied wants and needs of desired audiences.

    The growing 2.5G, 3G, 4G and Wi-Fi market and the role each air-interface will play is defined in the new Visant Strategies study “3G and 3G Alternatives: 3G vs. Wi-Fi vs. 4G.”

    The study finds 2.5G and 3G deployment will be varied. Operators are now seeking to extend the life and capabilities of existing 2G systems through upgrades to GPRS, EDGE, and cdma2000 1XRTT in some cases before considering W-CDMA. However, subscribers to W-CDMA-based services will still reach 90 million by 2007, with most subscribers residing in Japan and Europe.

    Spurring on 3G will be competition from fourth generation wireless systems, according to the study, which are due to be rolled out by the end of 2003 by forward-thinking wireless operators who have been working with 4G technology providers during the past years. Digital fourth-generation IP-based high-speed cellular systems will account for 14% of total mobile and portable wireless data revenues in 2007 and 50 million subscribers by year-end 2007.

    WLAN hot spots will generate approximately $12 billion in revenues in 2007, according to study findings. Wi-Fi operators and aggregators will form a symbiotic relationship with mobile operators, with mobile carriers accounting for over 60% of all hot spot revenues in 2007. Mobile operators are already using Wi-Fi to complement existing services and are expanding the use of the technology, particularly in the enterprise sector, which is fueling both Wi-Fi and mobile wireless applications.

    Wi-Fi’s growth becomes even more realistic when Wi-Fi operators team with 2.5G and 3G providers to provide high-speed wide area coverage coupled with even higher speeds at the hot spot. These and other partnering strategies are becoming more common today as operators have learned they may have to depend on each other for growth.

    The report details the 2.5G, 3G, 4G and Wi-Fi world markets by subscribers, market share, infrastructures sales and voice and data revenues from 2002 through 2007.
     
  6. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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  7. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Fixed Wireless: Back From the Dead?
    The fixed broadband wireless space is littered with wreckage. The leaders at the turn of the Millennium - Winstar, Teligent, Metricom - lie in the dustbin of venture history. Their demise took down many equipment companies, and crippled the remainder. The current 'leaders' are the survivors, and are being challenged by new technologies. The battle lines are forming around unlicensed vs. licensed bands. Much of the growth in fixed wireless is coming in unlicensed bands. The licensed band holders are mostly sitting on their spectrum (Sprint, XO) or in bankruptcy (Teligent).

    The hope, or hype, surrounds WiMAX, an attempt by Intel to repeat the magic of WiFi. The industry dynamics are quite different. WiMAX is to WiFi what ATM was to Ethernet - an attempt to create a more robust networking foundation that simply failed to gain enough market traction. The Ethernet ecosystem drove costs down and crept into available niches faster than ATM could gain a foothold. It also improved performance beyond the dreams of ATM. Gigabit Ethernet is not your father's Ethernet. Similarly, WiFi is well established and is pushing limits well before WiMAX gets started. The techniques of WiMAX can be incorporated into WiFi systems - and already have (check out SkyPilot Network). The advanced modulation of WiMAX can also be incorporated into WiFi silicon, as a next generation upgrade. WiFi is also pushing technology beyond where WiMAX wishes to be - for example, with the 802.11n standards effort, that could lead to MIMO and other advanced signal processing techniques on a piece of $5 silicon.

    Nevertheless, WIMAX has been good to the fixed wireless industry, of raising hope for a Third Pipe based on fixed wireless to challenge DSL and cable. How should we evaluate the current state of the market?

    Top three companies

    There really aren't three top companies yet. A noted above, the current leaders are survivors more than leaders, and are being challenged by new technologies. The three companies who are currently in the lead positions in this battle seem to be:

    * Alvarion, which has survived the downturn with a decent position worldwide in unlicensed as well as licensed band equipment

    * Flarion, which is driving the WiMobile (802.20) standard and is being tested by Nextel for a nationwide 4G system

    * Clearwire, which was recently bought by Craig McCaw and combined with NextNet, an equipment company migrating to WiMax (802.16). Nevertheless, it is too early to declare any winners.

    Top three innovations

    * Mesh networking, which is to fixed wireless what 3G is to the cellular industry - the next generation technology. Mesh is particularly suited to unlicensed bands, as it allows traffic to route around interference, and at scale may prove to be more reliable than point-to-multipoint systems in licensed bands.

    * MIMO, a signal processing approach that may be incorporated into 802.11n, the next advance in the WiFi space. Moore's Law will soon allow multiple radios on the same slab of silicon in the same band, enabling the incorporation of advanced signal processing techniques like MIMO in incredibly cheap chips. These techniques will extend range and speed, and reduce interference. WiFi chips based on 802.11n should surpass 100 Mbps and eventually head towards 144 Mbps.

    * OFDM, which is not a new innovation in itself - it was invented in 1971, and is being used in fast DSL chips - but has become the common foundation of WiFi, WiMax and WiMobile. OFDM seems destined to surpass CDMA and may form the basis of 4G mobile (and fixed) wireless systems.

    People/Companies to watch

    * Craig McCaw. He is reinvigorating interest in MMDS spectrum.

    * Nextel. Nextel owns about half the MMDS spectrum in the US. It may anoint the winning technology in the band; or it may lose interest and lead to a second fixed wireless boom/bust. Nextel is trying to swap out of its current cellular spectrum into better spectrum, and may have bought the MMDS licenses as a hedge.

    * SkyPilot. SkyPilot Network is one of the first WiFi mesh companies, and is about to launch product. (As a personal disclosure, I started SkyPilot, invested in it and remain Chairman.) What makes it interesting to watch is that it modified WiFi to gain many of the advantages of WiMax (higher speed, longer range) at the remarkably low price points of WiFi, and should be the first to demonstrate whether a mesh overcomes interference risk in unlicensed bands.

    * Airgo. Airgo is first to launch a MIMO WiFi chipset, even before the 802.11n standard is set.

    * FCC. Michael Powell is keen to promote a Third Pipe alternative to cable and DSL. The FCC has also been a strong proponent of unlicensed bands, and may create more unlicensed bands in the 'beachfront property' below 3 GHz.
     
  8. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Policy-based QoS-aware Handover in 4G Wireless Networks
    Projektledare
    Gunnar Karlsson

    Projektdeltagare
    Georgios Koudouridis, Telia Research AB
    Projektbeskrivning

    Future wireless communication systems beyond the third generation will be characterized by mobile devices that enable users to access services via different types of wireless IP-based networks. Different prices for the various access networks will motivate users to actively economize on their communications expenses by moving to cheaper access alternatives, even during ongoing sessions.The alternatives could be offered both by competing operators and by different network type for a given operator (e.g. WLAN and UMTS). This forms the basis for a new multi-access market where operators compete for having users accessing the Internet via their networks.



    Free movement between different access technologies and networks is difficult and there are many issues that need to be tied together. This project addresses the technical aspects of wireless open multi-access service offering. One important issue to study is the mapping of QoS requirements of the user onto the available access resources. Another issue is mobility support in terms of horizontal (intra-technology) handover between networks based on the same access technology, and vertical (inter-technology) hand-over between dissimilar access networks. It is desired in either case that handover will be performed seamlessly without affecting ongoing sessions. The discovery of alternative access networks with their service offerings and prices is also important to study. The main purposes of this work are: (1) to comprehend the behavior of a multi-access market where users can chose between different access technologies and networks, and operators compete for those users based primarily on QoS and price; and (2) to develop the systems that enable this new market.
     
  9. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    A transition to 4G?
    3G still has own market share

    By Kristy Lam Chi-sum

    02009331@hkbu.edu.hk

    JUST three weeks after the Third Generation (3G) mobile phones launched in Hong Kong, Hutchsion Whampoa has offered a new handset for less than $1000. This leads to an eventual mass market uptake, thanks to the incentive for price-sensitive mobile consumers.

    It came up with poor market response when 3G first launched. The first 3G mobile phone, NEC 616, which costs $4,380, is too expensive for phone users.

    To turn the whole situation around, the company slashed the price by nearly 80 percent.

    For just $998, plus $183 monthly tariff, 3G users can get the NEC 313 handset with a camera, make video calls and enjoy high speed browsing and other information and entertainment services.

    Dr Lawrence Cheung, the Principal Consultant of the Mobile Business Unit of Hong Kong Productivity Council, believed the dramatic price cut would increase the penetration rate of 3G mobile phones in Hong Kong.

    "Compared with 2G mobile phones, 3G mobile phones can provide customers with more functions and now, with a reasonable price," he said.

    Ms Chan, an office lady, shared the same opinion with Dr Cheung. She has just bought the inexpensive 3G handset with her boyfriend.

    "It is even cheaper than a 2G mobile phone!" she said, "I cannot afford the first one; it costs half of my salary."

    This second wave marketing campaign is a victory. According to a sales executive in Central '3' shop, they have sold at least twenty NEC 313 handsets in three hours.

    Though it seems that many people are eager to grab a 3G handset, Dr Cheung predicted it might not last for long.

    He considered video conferencing as a gimmick. 3G users may find it unnecessary in long run.

    "Hong Kong is such a small place, video conferencing may not be necessary," he pointed out. "Most importantly, the functions of 2G or 2.5 G mobile phones are enough for consumers."

    Mok Sau-foon, a Nokia 8210 handset user and a reporter, shows the real situation. "Mobile phones are always a communication tool for me. I rarely use other functions. 3G is too much for a normal user."

    Indeed, Dr Cheung thought that a large proportion of 3G users may find the phones superfluous.

    To increase the penetration rate of 3G mobile phones, Dr Cheung suggested the company should release more models.

    "Hong Kong is a critical market. If you want your goods to be a success, the price should be reasonable, the appearance should be attractive and it should be durable."

    He also criticized the low stability of 3G network connection. He experienced a series of breakdowns in video streaming of breaking news and sports while he was using the phone. A connection was unable to be established in other cases as well.

    "It takes time to improve," he believed. "The bad appraisals of 3G mobile phones may delay other customers' decision on buying the phone."

    While the development of 3G mobile phones is still inchoate, the Fourth Generation (4G) mobile phones are coming.

    It will be released in Korea by the end of 2005. A Chinese wireless expert forecasts China may accelerate the release of 4G mobile phones if 3G is not developing well.

    Dr Cheung held a different viewpoint. "It takes at least 10 years to get 4G mobile phones for commercial use," he said.

    But he admitted that the transfer rate of 4G mobile phones can be 50 times faster than 3G mobile phones in maximum. He proposed there would be more rooms for 4G mobile phones to develop in the future.

    4G may not arrive in Hong Kong until the year 2010. In the meantime, the vital matter goes to the improvement of 3G network. Boosting the contents for people to download is also critical for the development of 3G mobile phones.

    "The Hong Kong Wireless Technology Industry Association is offering a testing program in the Cyber Port for telecom companies," Dr Cheung said. "Hong Kong Productivity Council would also help to provide business opportunities to telecom companies and download service providers so that consumers may find 3G mobile phones more attractive."
     
  10. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    4G Networks Within Reach
    6th October ,2004

    Wi-LAN Inc. announced it has successfully demonstrated its LIBRA 5800 TM operating in a full mobility environment, including both high speed (vehicular) and seamless hand-off capability. This demonstration was prepared for a senior delegation from one of the world's leading electronic companies, who cannot be named due to confidentiality. This demonstration marks another significant milestone towards Wi-LAN's long time vision of applying its Wide-band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (W-OFDM) technology in 4th Generation (4G) cellular Networks.

    The demonstration is performed using equipment based exclusively on Wi-LAN's W-OFDM expertise. Backhauled by Wi-LAN's LIBRA 3000, two LIBRA 5800 TM Access Units with hand-off capability provide wireless connectivity of 32 Mbps to a Mobile Unit traveling in excess of 100 km/hour (62 mph). The demonstration was shown over a 3 km stretch of highway north of the Calgary international airport.

    "The hand-off capability in a high speed environment is another significant milestone," says Dr. Sayed-Amr El-Hamamsy. "The demonstration proves the capability of W-OFDM technology for 4G cellular networks." Wi-LAN demonstrated its W-OFDM technology in a 110 km/hour (or 70 mph) mobile environment without hand-off back in January 2000.

    The LIBRA 5800 TM product line, a joint development between Wi-LAN and Wellink, a leading integrator of high-speed telecommunication systems, is designed to address the growing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) market, including Public Safety, Homeland Security and onboard multimedia service.

    Wi-LAN invites mobile operators and equipment makers to arrange a visit to Calgary to witness a demonstration of this exciting technical breakthrough.

    Wi-LAN's LIBRA 5800 product series now includes an all-inclusive 2-year parts and labour warranty. As well, customers who deploy Wi-LAN's LIBRA product line are protected by Wi-LAN's CONTINUITY PROGRAM(TM). The core of the CONTINUITY PROGRAM is Wi-LAN's commitment that any current LIBRA Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) will operate side by side, in the same network, the same cell and even the same sector with future WiMAX Certified(1) CPE's. The CONTINUITY PROGRAM will minimize network and revenue disruption and protect customers' investment in current technology when networks are transitioned to WiMAX Certified equipment. The CONTINUITY PROGRAM offers Wi-LAN customers a solid migration path to Wi-LAN's Wi-MAX Certified systems, which are expected to be available in the first half of 2005.

    About Wi-LAN Inc.

    Wi-LAN is a global provider of broadband wireless communications products and technologies, offering businesses, including telecom service providers, and government enterprises effective, economic and secure wireless high-speed communications solutions. Wi-LAN specializes in high-speed Internet access, data network extension, and wireless data and telephony backhaul, utilizing its high quality products and industry-leading technologies. Wi-LAN believes its portfolio of patents, including its core W-OFDM patents and 17 patents and patent applications acquired from Ensemble Communications in May 2004, are necessary for the implementation of devices using the IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN Standard (1) and the ETSI BRAN HiperMAN(1) standard (the WiMAX Forum(1) standards). As well, Wi-LAN's W-OFDM patents are believed to be required for the implementation of devices using the IEEE standards 802.11a and 802.11g (the 2nd generation WiFi Alliance(1) standards), and the ETSI BRAN HiperLAN/2(1) standard. Wi-LAN licenses its patented technology and has executed non-exclusive W-OFDM license agreements with semiconductor and broadband wireless equipment companies. Wi-LAN is the Chair Company of the OFDM Forum (www.ofdm-forum.com) and an active member of the WiMAX Forum (www.wimaxforum.org). Wi-LAN's common shares trade on The Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "WIN."
     
  11. dallison

    dallison Senior Member
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    wow tht would be awesome, too bad it wont be here for a few more years
     
  12. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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  13. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    4G Wireless Technologies Impacting on Traditional Wireless Infrastructures
    1st February ,2004

    Research and Markets has announced the addition of Broadband Wireless and WiMAX to their offering.

    To remain competitive, service providers must develop a wireless strategy that coordinates offerings and networks between their wireline and wireless broadband infrastructures. Advances in fixed wireless broadband standards have enabled service providers to extend the reach and speed of their high-speed services. In addition, the deployment of mobile broadband solutions such as 3G is inaugurating a new era in communications.

    Broadband Wireless and WiMAX presents today's most viable broadband business models and market strategies, highlighting ways to retain customers while increasing profitability. Authored by professionals currently at work in the industry, this report offers a knowledgeable and in-depth examination of 802.16x (WiMAX) and 802.20; 802.11x (Wi-Fi) networks and WLANs; mobility, portability, and fixed services integration; and integrated wireless/wireline service offerings

    The features of this report are as follows:

    -- Examines the impact of on fixed-line and traditional wireless infrastructures

    -- Offers coherent strategies on how operators can coordinate their offerings and networks between their wireline and wireless broadband infrastructures

    -- Explores the evolution of broadband wireless access technologies, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses

    -- Assesses the technical capabilities, deployment status, and interworking of emerging wireless technologies

    -- Discusses the use of fiber-optic components to support high-data-rate wireless access systems

    -- Compares the performances of different wireless networks in transferring multimedia applications

    -- Provides a comprehensive overview of the emerging WiMAX technology and all of its enhancements

    -- Analyzes the global market for WiMAX and broadband wireless access

    -- Provides a technical and market comparison of the Wi-Fi and WiMAX technologies

    -- Presents an in-depth discussion of Wi-Fi networks in which 802.11x is defined, cost and revenue drivers are assessed, and various business strategies are explored

    -- Discusses the challenge of selecting an effective OSS infrastructure for offering a carrier-grade Wi-Fi service

    -- Presents a general overview of today's WLAN world, assessing the challenges that are currently being faced and the latest developments

    -- Explores the internetworking of IEEE 802.11b WLAN and 3G UMTS networks

    -- Assesses the use of UMTS 3G technology in broadband wireless applications

    -- Examines the convergence of mobile or cellular networks with wireless enterprise networks

    -- Outlines some of the technical challenges that must be met to allow full coexistence between cellular and WLAN modes of operation
     
  14. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    4G THz BS datasheet



    Increasing demand for high performance 4G broadband wireless mobile calls for use of multiple antennas at both base station and subscriber ends. Multiple antenna technologies enable high capacities suited for Internet and multimedia services and also dramatically increase range and reliability. This design is motivated by the growing demand for broadband wireless Internet access. The challenge for wireless broadband access lies in providing a comparable quality of service for similar cost as competing wireline technologies. The target frequency band for this system is 1 to 6 THz due to favorable propagation characteristics and low radio-frequency (RF) equipment cost. The broadband channel is typically non-LOS channel and includes impairments such as time-selective fading and frequency-selective fading. Multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver provide diversity in a fading environment. By employing multiple antennas, multiple spatial channels are created and it is unlikely all the channels will fade simultaneously.
    OFDM is chosen over a single carrier solution due to lower complexity of equalizers for high delay spread channels or high data rates. A broadband signal is broken down into multiple narrowband carriers (tones), where each carrier is more robust to multipath. In order to maintain orthogonally amongst tones, a cyclic prefix is added which has length greater than the expected delay spread. With proper coding and interleaving across frequencies, multipath turns into an OFDM system advantage by yielding frequency diversity. OFDM can be implemented efficiently by using FFT’s at the transmitter and receiver. At the receiver, FFT reduces the channel response into a multiplicative constant on a tone-by-tone basis. With MIMO, the channel response becomes a matrix. Since each tone can be equalized independently, the complexity of space-time equalizers is avoided. Multipath remains an advantage for a MIMO-OFDM system since frequency selectivity caused by multipath improves the rank distribution of the channel matrices across frequency tones, thereby increasing capacity.
     
  15. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    The open Gaiacomm wireless platform requires:
    · Area and power-efficient broadband signal processing for wideband wireless applications
    · Highest industry channel density (MOPS pooling) in flexible new BTS signal processing architectures
    · BTS solutions scalable to higher clock rates and higher network capacity
    · Waveform-specific processors provides new architecture for platform reuse in terminals for multiservice capability
    · Terminal solutions achieve highest computational efficiency for application with high flexibility
    · Powerful layered software architecture using virtual machine programming concept
     
  16. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Gaiacomm International Terahertz repeaters, are designed to provide indoor
    and outdoor coverage in a wide variety of environments.
    The Gaiacomm International Terahertz repeaters are true repeaters offering signal down
    conversion to an IF (intermediate frequency). Repeaters are more effective than
    BDAs because at this low IF, highly selective bandpass filtering effectively
    rejects adjacent band competitors and interfering signals. Then, the signals are
    up converted back to their original frequencies, amplified, and radiated via the Base Station server antenna.
    Most other units in the competitor category are simply bidirectional
    amplifiers (BDAs) that offer little or no band pass filtering. These
    units will amplify and re-transmit competitor’s signals, using valuable RF power
    that could be used to amplify the desired in-band signals.
    Many people install inexpensive BDAs, and quickly find out that the coverage
    area and overall signal levels are less than what they expected. This is because so
    many other undesired signals are consuming the RF power in the BDA so that
    little is left for in-band signals. A repeater will transmit only the desired signals,
    so no RF is wasted. Also, a repeater is frequently competitively priced relative to
    a BDA, especially if external bandpass filters must be added to the BDA to make
    it rejects out-of-band signals.
     
  17. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Gaiacomm International repeaters offer optional remote alarming, allowing technicians to remotely monitor repeater performance.
    The Gaiacomm International repeater can be remotely monitored using our UM (Unit Manager) software.
    This is a GUI (graphical user interface) driven software package that
    continuously polls the Gaiacomm International multiple repeaters for alarms, or it will alert a UM operator to an alarm dialed in from a repeater.
    Gaiacomm International repeaters have extensive software control of uplink and downlink power levels, which makes these units truly “plug and play”, with a totally automatic setup sequence.
    Most simple BDAs offer automatic gain control (AGC), which
    varies the gain of the unit based on received signal levels. Such an AGC system
    fights and defeats the power control already in place in the base station (BTS).
    Others have manual attenuator switches that need to be adjusted by the
    installation technician. However, Gaiacomm International software controlled repeaters start their set-up sequence automatically when the AC power is turned on.
    The units monitor their output power and increase the gain in small steps until the correct output power is achieved.
    Once this set-up sequence is complete, the unit will not
    continue to change its internal attenuator settings, so the BTS and mobile phone and other wireless devices can interact in a normal fashion.

    The Gaiacomm International repeaters are rated at 75,000 hours (about 8½ years) MTBF (mean time between failures), making them exceptionally reliable in remote settings where maintenance is difficult. This dramatically lowers life cycle cost.
     
  18. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    The open Gaiacomm wireless platform requires:
    · Area and power-efficient broadband signal processing for wideband wireless applications
    · Highest industry channel density (MOPS pooling) in flexible new BTS signal processing architectures
    · BTS solutions scalable to higher clock rates and higher network capacity
    · Waveform-specific processors provides new architecture for platform reuse in terminals for multiservice capability
    · Terminal solutions achieve highest computational efficiency for application with high flexibility
    · Powerful layered software architecture using virtual machine programming concept
    Multi-standard air-interfaces
    · GSM, IS-95, cdma-2000, TD-SCDMA, 3GPP WCDMA, HDR, Gaia3
    · Proprietary standards
    Highest channel-density
    · 3GPP channels
    · 128 cdma2000 channels
    · Ability to support multiple sectors on one chip
    · BTS-on-a-chip (Terahertz)
    Scalable data-rates
    · Support from to 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps
    Configurable to mix voice and data
    · Programmable allocation of channels
    IP-ready
    · Interfaces directly via BTS IP back-haul & end-to-end All-IP
    Over-the-network programmable
    · Remotely configurable from network operations center
    The key features of Gaiacomm open wireless terminal include:
    Multi-standard Air Interface
    · GSM, IS-95, cdma2000, TD-SCDMA, 3GPP WCDMA, W-LAN, Bluetooth, UWB, Gaia3
    Power Efficient
    · 100 MOPS/mW & better
    Scalable Architecture
    · Breaks the 2Mbps plateau
    High-level 4GModem
    · Simplifies programming for each standard
    · Enhances reuse across standards
    · Software Definable Modules
    Integrates across many platforms
    · No DSP and minimal microprocessor dependent code
    · Open OS interfaces
    SIP Cores (Silicon Intellectual Property)
    · Initial engine optimized for B3G/4G applications
    · Core of Open Wireless Architecture (OWA)
     
  19. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Gaiacomm Open Backbone Network Access Platform
    In recent years, access aggregation technologies have been developed that allows a common access and transport network to bear the traffic of subscribers from multiple service providers. Separating access and transport from service accomplishes two points:
    · It eliminates the burden of building out an access network, reducing the barrier to entry for new service providers and improving the growth potential for existing service providers.
    · It promotes technical and business efficiencies for access and transport enterprises due to economies of scale and the ability to resell that access infrastructure to multiple service providers.
    New systems provide end-to-end direct IP connections for users by extending access aggregation architectures to mobile broadband access. Network and service providers can leverage existing equipment, tool and content bases to support mobile broadband end users, while the end users experience the best of the wireless and wired worlds ¾ the broadest range of applications and end-user devices, coupled with the freedom to move and high data rates.
     
  20. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Factoids:
    · The magnetic fields and ionosphere are somewhat well understood and the properties of each have been defined and catalogued. Having access to this type data is important. The key is in interpretation and employment of the characteristics of the fields combined forces. By understanding the reflective properties of the magnetic field, one can send an encoded signal from an antenna in a unidirectional pattern (Packet burst) to be reflected and re-reflected from the surface of the earth, which includes the entire surface including the oceans. In short, the earth will be used as a natural “transponder” to beacon its on signal and receive the same with an antenna of matching characteristics. With this principle of wireless communications it will be possible to transmit and receive data on a predetermined (allocated) band to submarines at any depth, airships, ground ships and all military personnel anywhere anytime in a mode of complete stealth. What we discovered is that the earth and its fields are very dynamic and oscillating at various frequencies. If one isolates these frequencies one will soon discover that there is one field that behaves and responds to impulses imposed on it. Like a rubber band pushed and pulled on to yield perfect response. These frequencies are terahertz waves. Extensive research has been done to generate these waves in a lab and in some cases in the field. The “trick” is to interlace the terahertz wave with the required data encoded and embed it on a low frequency wave to carry it worldwide and then “match” the signal wave to allow it to be reflected off the magnetic field by-passing the ionosphere. The ionosphere operates within the confines of the equipment and generation of the field/waves employed. Gaiacomm has taken the quantum leap to employ the next wave, which is the beginning of subspace communications. We use a form of frequency hopping which is properly synchronized. The net result is to maintain that single logical channel.
    · Whales, dolphins, and of course other mammals of this type communicate using an infrasound wave transmitting over long distances. Insects also communicate to each other either using the twigs or branches they are on or thru a medium that scientists are still discovering. We at gaiacomm understand these various channels of communications and have adapted the governing dynamics to the mechanical oscillator and other equipment needed to replicate the dynamics of these signals with the exception we have taken into account the communication stream of these mammals and insects and have decided to use our own waveband to communicate so as to not intrude on the various communication data links that exist in nature thus allowing us to effectively communicate amongst ourselves globally without exposing and destroying the delicate communication network that exists on this planet. The Navy has conducted various tests in high power sonar with total disregard for the ambient environment. The gaiacomm system is operating in a frequency range that is above and below the numerous creatures that communicate, thus this places our system in parallel with other natural communication systems.
     
  21. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    The mission of Gaiacomm International Corporation is to research and commercialize new, robust, and Earth-friendly technologies for global wireless communications and wireless application developments.

    By establishing such new technology paradigms, Gaiacomm International Corporation seeks to establish itself as the leader of a wireless protocol era for advancing humanity and the sciences.

    Gaiacomm International Corporation is cognizant that existing wireless technologies have been shown harmful to the environment, to people, to mammals and aquatic life, and these technologies cannot foster new efficiencies and advances in wireless application development for mankind.

    The vision of Gaiacomm International Corporation is to utilize its global wireless communications technology platform to enable both reliable and fairly priced wireless communications to people of all nations and races.

    With its technology platform, Gaiacomm International Corporation envisions new wireless applications being commercialized for telecommunications, imaging, neural-sciences, geophysical sciences, and other scientific arenas to revitalize academic research, provide advanced employment opportunities, and bring about positive social changes for a peaceful, healthy and prosperous global humanity.

    The ultimate vision of Gaiacomm International Corporation is to provide a technology whereby persons of all ethnic backgrounds can work together to blend scientific knowledge with product applications for the betterment of all humanity.

    Gaiacomm International Corporation seeks to provide complete and affordable communication infrastructure solutions worldwide, recognizing that high-speed global communication is the catalyst to information exchange in real time. This will empower enlightened minds to devote themselves into other areas of intellectual and technical enquiry. By encouraging a transparent exchange of information, peace and goodwill will undoubtedly be fostered.
     
  22. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    The Gaiacomm International element manager (EM) provides flexible, centralized management for the total control of the entire system.
    This powerful, next-generation solution enables performance, fault, and configuration
    management of single and multiple total control of the entire wireless system throughout the entire network.
    Environments, including enhanced data systems, IP telephony, and wireless.

    Using Gaiacomm International EM’s comprehensive, integrated management capabilities, network operators can easily accomplish tasks such as global configuration of groups of Total Control 1000 chassis, perform bulk software downloads, and apply performance monitoring and troubleshooting across all Gaiacomm International-based networks. The solution enables oversight of third-party compliant devices.
    Advanced, value added features include customizable device folders, convenient device displays, high-level security and device control, and advanced configuration services.

    A Java™-based solution, the Gaiacomm International EM runs on platforms supported by Java 2 SE Version 1.3, enabling service providers to use their server of choice, thus leveraging their existing equipment investment.

    Features include a flexible client-server architecture and easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow network operators to view system status at a
    glance. In addition, the solution provides a common look and feel across all Gaiacomm International service environments as well as open XML interface and scripting application interfaces, enabling network operators to rapidly develop and deploy new
    customized applications.

    Gaiacomm International EM is a packet data implementation of allowing operation on unpaired spectrum anywhere in any bands. Chip rates (TBD) are supported, for operation in channelization of 1 and10 THz Band. Gaiacomm International 4G technology operates in a non line-of-sight environment allowing fast wireless data access indoor, outdoor and in vehicular mobility environments. The system gain (link budget) is typically higher than 2G or 3G cellular systems allowing cells to be larger than that of typical cellular/PCS systems, or alternatively similar size with greater building penetration probability.
    Gaiacomm International 4G technology is optimized for data rates of up to 100 Mbps carrying Internet Protocol (IP) traffic for Internet access and other mobile, portable and fixed data applications.
    Gaiacomm International’s complete Radio Access Network (RAN) solution consists of an Integrated Network Controller (INC), an environmental hardened Node B and a range of small, low power, network access devices for subscribers. Gaiacomm International’s RAN connects to industry standard IP core network forming a complete solution for licensed operators and Internet Service Providers (ISP) to offer true fixed, portable and mobile broadband wireless access.
    Transport format selection (rate adaptation) is implemented on a per-subscriber basis, varying coding and modulation to provide the highest possible data rate to each user in the cell, depending on channel characteristics and interference.
    Being packet based, the air interface is statistically shared by users in a very efficient manner. Customers are able to experience an "always on" Internet connection, and do not use any system capacity while not transmitting or receiving data.
     
  23. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Gaiacomm International personnel, with a pre-approved independent review board to validate our results, will manage certification and testing. To date there is no known agency having this type of responsibility and authority.

    ******** A USB type port will be intergraded on all required units.
    ******** 4G IP mobile phones will have regional and eventual global coverage.
    ******** Negotiations will have to take place in order to crosstalk with other 3G networks ground and Satellite systems.
    ******** There will be provisions to provide GPRS access as well.
    ****** Text input (SMS) to 4G mobile phone with newly designed keyboard. The input protocol will be set to allow multiple language interfaces. This allows for text conversion into other languages to be displayed on the screen of the device or in voice conversion.
    ******** IP Phone (headset) for PC/Laptop or any other portable device.
    ******** Built-in 4G modem for PC/Laptop over USB type port.
    ******** Other benefits and features are contingent on delivery times and initial revenue investment.
    ********High-resolution movies, digital TV and gaming all at up to100 frames per second. This allows for the quick download of all video media. Watch a full-length movie from your laptop or TV without going to the theater. Live broadcast viewed in real-time without edit.
    ******** IP communications with Gaiacomm International will be the only reliable standard with a full range of features.
    A full range of military and governmental applications that offer a secure undetectable access and eavesdropping techniques. Complete monitoring of all bands without the compromising detection of other networks.
     
  24. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Gaiacomm International will provide a full-turnkey Terahertz 4G Network solution that includes a subscriber 4G handset with integrated modem and Element Management system, turn-up system, training and support.

    The 4G-handset with support equipment is a separate solution requiring a separate set of tasks and costs. This solution will most likely be contracted to a business concern that has as handsets as its main product line. The advantage is a reduced overall cost and time-to-market, shortening the delivery time.

    ******** Quality of Service (QoS)
    The overall output of the system will be constantly monitored for variations in field strengths, output power, data routing (note: “data” denotes the entire spectrum of telecommunications transmission media), transceiver operations, distributive repeater monitoring and correction, full spectrum of data and billing protocols, self testing, re-routes, optical switch monitor, full redundant and fail safe system checks, gateway and HUB analysis, loads and capacity analysis and corrections, IP algorithm to monitor and correct variations, assignments, channel selector and corrections, smart antenna system check and correction, software and hardware corrections algorithms, multitasking of various system monitors, frequency corrections and analysis, overall system monitor and corrections within the entire network, neural net processors that monitor and recommend with corrections, source code is hermitically sealed and encrypted within the core.

    Internet content will be controlled and monitored for quality, prohibiting all pornographic materials, along with any counterproductive media that could cause adverse reactions. The system is designed to be a closed loop private network with control mechanisms active to identify those seeking to profit from and infect the quality of the product via malicious tampering, or injecting content that is not allowed.

    Editorial. The Internet should be a helpful and healthy place used by everyone, including children. It should not serve as a hunting ground for the depraved and wicked that prey upon children, where parents have to fear that their children are at risk every time they log on. Young minds can easily be corrupted by wily adults that specialize in the hunt. The innocent can be psychologically coerced to participate in activities they would normally refuse by content that damages the development of their character, many times against their knowledge, and often against their will.
     
  25. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    The Gaiacomm International element manager (EM) provides flexible, centralized management for the total control of the entire system.
    This powerful, next-generation solution enables performance, fault, and configuration
    management of single and multiple total control of the entire wireless system throughout the entire network.
    Environments, including enhanced data systems, IP telephony, and wireless.

    Using Gaiacomm International EM’s comprehensive, integrated management capabilities, network operators can easily accomplish tasks such as global configuration of groups of Total Control 1000 chassis, perform bulk software downloads, and apply performance monitoring and troubleshooting across all Gaiacomm International-based networks. The solution enables oversight of third-party compliant devices.
    Advanced, value added features include customizable device folders, convenient device displays, high-level security and device control, and advanced configuration services.

    A Java™-based solution, the Gaiacomm International EM runs on platforms supported by Java 2 SE Version 1.3, enabling service providers to use their server of choice, thus leveraging their existing equipment investment.

    Features include a flexible client-server architecture and easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow network operators to view system status at a
    glance. In addition, the solution provides a common look and feel across all Gaiacomm International service environments as well as open XML interface and scripting application interfaces, enabling network operators to rapidly develop and deploy new
    customized applications.

    Gaiacomm International EM is a packet data implementation of allowing operation on unpaired spectrum anywhere in any bands. Chip rates (TBD) are supported, for operation in channelization of 1 and10 THz Band. Gaiacomm International 4G technology operates in a non line-of-sight environment allowing fast wireless data access indoor, outdoor and in vehicular mobility environments. The system gain (link budget) is typically higher than 2G or 3G cellular systems allowing cells to be larger than that of typical cellular/PCS systems, or alternatively similar size with greater building penetration probability.
    Gaiacomm International 4G technology is optimized for data rates of up to 100 Mbps carrying Internet Protocol (IP) traffic for Internet access and other mobile, portable and fixed data applications.
    Gaiacomm International’s complete Radio Access Network (RAN) solution consists of an Integrated Network Controller (INC), an environmental hardened Node B and a range of small, low power, network access devices for subscribers. Gaiacomm International’s RAN connects to industry standard IP core network forming a complete solution for licensed operators and Internet Service Providers (ISP) to offer true fixed, portable and mobile broadband wireless access.
    Transport format selection (rate adaptation) is implemented on a per-subscriber basis, varying coding and modulation to provide the highest possible data rate to each user in the cell, depending on channel characteristics and interference.
    Being packet based, the air interface is statistically shared by users in a very efficient manner. Customers are able to experience an "always on" Internet connection, and do not use any system capacity while not transmitting or receiving data.
     
  26. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    The Gaiacomm IA (Isotropic antenna) is a unique design using a material that allows energy to be reflected in a 360-degree pattern.

    FEATURES
    • Omni directional Coverage
    • Frequencies from 1.4 THz
    to 6.0 THz
    • Large, Compact Footprint
    • Aerodynamic Shape
    • Built to Withstand Extreme Shock
    & Vibration Environments
    • Advanced Wireless Outdoor Routing Protocol (WORP)
    polling technique delivers up to 100 Mbps of usable
    throughput
    • Gaia3 technology, enhances non-line of sight
    performance improving deployment in challenging areas
    • High Aero-Heating Protection
    Available
    • Rugged Construction
    · Smart Antenna design
    · Large coverage area in square surface miles (minimum 25 sq surface miles to 5.1 million sq surface miles)
    · Redundancy built in system for correctional downtime prevention






    ENVIRONMENTAL
    CHARACTERISTICS
    Operating Temperature -30 to +75° C (standard)
    -40 to +85°C (optional extended temperature range components)
    Storage Temperature -55 to +90°C
    Humidity SAE J1455/4.2 procedure I/II
    Waterproof Fully sealed unit. Meets MIL-STD 810E method 512.3 (equivalent to 6-foot, 30-minute
    submersion)
    Shock MIL-STD 810E method 506.4, procedure I, IV
    Vibration MIL-STD 810E method 514.4 category 8
    Salt Spray MIL-STD 810E method 509.3 (48 hours)
    Chemical Resistance The antenna material is compatible with chemicals encountered in heavy-duty trucking industry
    Sand and Dust MIL-STD 810E method 510.3
    ESD IEC 1000-4- 2 level 2 (-8KV to +8KV)
    Ultraviolet Light Protection ASTM G53-88
    Altitude -10,000 ft to 40,000 ft. (-3,000 m to 12,000 m)
     
  27. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    across frequency tones, thereby increasing capacity.
    The open Gaiacomm wireless platform requires:
    · Area and power-efficient broadband signal processing for wideband wireless applications
    · Highest industry channel density (MOPS pooling) in flexible new BTS signal processing architectures
    · BTS solutions scalable to higher clock rates and higher network capacity
    · Waveform-specific processors provides new architecture for platform reuse in terminals for multiservice capability
    · Terminal solutions achieve highest computational efficiency for application with high flexibility
    · Powerful layered software architecture using virtual machine programming concept
    Multi-standard air-interfaces
    · GSM, IS-95, cdma-2000, TD-SCDMA, 3GPP WCDMA, HDR, Gaia3
    · Proprietary standards
    Highest channel-density
    · 3GPP channels
    · 128 cdma2000 channels
    · Ability to support multiple sectors on one chip
    · BTS-on-a-chip (Terahertz)
    Scalable data-rates
    · Support from to 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps
    Configurable to mix voice and data
    · Programmable allocation of channels
    IP-ready
    · Interfaces directly via BTS IP back-haul & end-to-end All-IP
    Over-the-network programmable
    · Remotely configurable from network operations center
    The key features of Gaiacomm open wireless terminal include:
    Multi-standard Air Interface
    · GSM, IS-95, cdma2000, TD-SCDMA, 3GPP WCDMA, W-LAN, Bluetooth, UWB, Gaia3
    Power Efficient
    · 100 MOPS/mW & better
    Scalable Architecture
    · Breaks the 2Mbps plateau
    High-level 4GModem
    · Simplifies programming for each standard
    · Enhances reuse across standards
    · Software Definable Modules
    Integrates across many platforms
    · No DSP and minimal microprocessor dependent code
    · Open OS interfaces
    SIP Cores (Silicon Intellectual Property)
    · Initial engine optimized for B3G/4G applications
    · Core of Open Wireless Architecture (OWA)
     
  28. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Spectrum Efficiency and Capacity Enhancement
    Wide-area wireless broadband systems’ spectral efficiency can yield a system capacity that allows that experience to be delivered simultaneously to many users in a cell, reducing the cost of service delivery for this mass-market broadband service. These systems are optimized to exploit the full potential of adaptive antenna signal processing, thereby providing robust, high-speed connections for mobile users with a minimum of radio infrastructure.
    The spectral efficiency of a radio system ¾ the quantity of billable services that can be delivered in a unit of spectrum ¾ directly impacts network economics and service quality. Spectrally efficient systems have the following characteristics:
    · Reduced spectrum requirements, minimizing up-front capital expenses related to spectrum
    · Reduced infrastructure requirements, minimizing capital and operating costs associated with base station sites, translating into reduced costs per subscriber and per covered population element
    · High capacity, maximizing the system throughput and end-user experience even under load
    Spectral efficiency measures the ability of a wireless system to deliver information, “billable services,” with a given amount of radio spectrum. In cellular radio systems, spectral efficiency is measured in bits/second/Hertz/cell (bps/Hz/cell). Many factors contribute to the spectral efficiency of a system, including the modulation formats, air interface “overhead” (signaling information other than user data), multiple access method, and usage model, among others.
    The Gaiacomm Base Station performs like a Wireless Router supporting traditional infrastructure as well as ad-hoc wireless networking.
    The Gaiacomm Base Station will be converging the wireless communication, data communication, computer communication as well as telecommunications.
    Smart Antennas
    We propose the use of smart antennas in the base station and
    preferably also in the terminals. We here assume only straightforward
    techniques of low computational complexity. In the
    base station, multiple Isotropic antennas are used to form relatively narrow
    sectors (beams), and also to obtain diversity by Maximum
    Ratio Combining (MRC) using diversity branches within
    each sector.
     
  29. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    FEATURES of Gaiacomm Base station:

    Best-in-class performance with advanced by eliminating in-the-air collisions and maximizing data content for each transmission, WORP
    Wireless Outdoor Router Protocol (WORP) significantly improves performance over standard 802.11-based products.
    Highly secure communication Unlike the 802.11 a/b/g standards, as a proprietary protocol, WORP eliminates the possibilities of unauthorized snooping.
    Most flexible spectrum selection 1.4 – 6.497 THz
    Non-line of sight capable Line of sight and non-line of sight connectivity extends deployment flexibility in rural as well as high-density urban areas.
    Mobile roaming fast hand-off at speeds up to 200mph between overlapping BSs enables mobile broadband services for transportation systems, emergency responders and even high-speed rail.

    Guaranteed data rate while roaming allows bandwidth-intensive applications, such as high-definition video streaming, in mobile environments
    High-sector count per cell (360º) Supports 8 sectors per cell
    High throughput per cell (360º) With 8 sectors, up to 500 Mbps
    250,000 Min subscriber support per BS Increasing the number of subscribers per cell allows the fastest ROI
    Dynamic Data Rate Selection (DDRS) Automatically optimizes throughput as link conditions change or as subscribers roam.
    Connectivity is automatically maintained when link quality degrades.
    Flexible bandwidth provisioning Bi-directional bandwidth rate limiting allows service providers to offer tiered services in 10 mbps increments.
    Service can be provisioned instantly from the central office, without costly truck rolls.
    Concurrent asymmetrical and symmetrical both residential and business customers can be served by the same BS. Asymmetrical mode communications per BS (DSL-like) is used for residential and symmetrical mode (T1-like) is used for business services.

    Built-in NAT service Enables private IP network deployment and extends IP services such as storage and e-mail at the (Network Address Translation) subscriber site

    Built-in DHCP service DHCP compliments the NAT service by provisioning private IP addresses in the subscriber’s network.
    Flexible and secure remote management Supports remote management via Telnet, SNMP and web interfaces with password protections.
    Enhanced Subscriber Unit privacy Intracell blocking allows the BS to act as the central policy enforcer for SU to SU communications and prevents unauthorized neighbor snooping.

    Antenna alignment tool provides running statistics with real-time signal strength to aid antenna installation
    Comprehensive station statistics Unit and group statistics are available for monitoring, planning and management of a wireless network.

    INTERFACE
    Wired Ethernet 10/100Base-TX Ethernet (RJ-45) (TBD)
    Wireless Protocol WORP, Gaia3
    Antenna Connector Standard-N male


    RADIO AND TRANSMISSION SPECIFICATIONS

    Frequencies Americas (FCC): 1.25-6.35 Multiple channels
    Modulation Method: OFDM, TBD
    Transmission Rate: up to 100 Mbps

    PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS
    Dimension 232 Ft Height Base: 75 Ft
    Weight (TBD)
    (Without metal base)

    ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
    Temperature Operating: 0 to 75°C
    Storage: -30 to 75°C
    Humidity Operating: Max 98% relative humidity
    (Non-condensing)
    Storage: Max 98% relative humidity
    (Non-condensing)

    POWER SUPPLY
    1 Million watts of continuous power

    MTBF AND WARRANTY
    500,000 hours
    10-year on parts and labor
     
  30. gaiacomm

    gaiacomm Senior Member
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    Reconfigurable cores, scalable alogithms propel DSPs into 4G wireless
    By Wei-Jei Song, Senior Architect, 3DSP Corp., Irvine, Calif., EE Times
    February 21, 2002 (12:55 p.m. EST)
    URL: http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20020221S0041

    If you are looking for fourth-generation, or 4G, wireless to shorten the life span of previous generations you had better look elsewhere. Rather, expect it — unlike other wireless protocols — to be a technology unifier that will not snuff out earlier technology such as 2G (GSM, TDMA, IS95), 2.5G (GPRS) and the emerging 3G (WCDMA, UMTS).

    With the proposed 4G-SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card concept used to configure any handset, subscribers equipped with 4G wireless will be able to use any 4G-SIM cell phone regardless of the underlying technology. The 4G-SIM would also work as a phone card for 4G pay phones or to configure a 4G household phone. During travel, Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) with 4G capability will track the 4G-SIM, so as soon as the 4G-SIM is "parked" into a 4G handset in the hotel phone calls will not have to be forwarded.

    But to achieve the all-digital, IP-based 4G network — projected to be ready by 200 6 — certain requirements must be met and problems solved.


    Handoff. The 4G wireless network must support a common protocol to access a satellite-based network and another protocol for terrestrial networks. The 4G-capable devices thus interface with fixed wireless networks, satellite networks, wireless LANs and cellular networks.

    Deliver data rates up to 100 Mbits/second. It disappointing that the 3G settles for the 300- to 400-kbit/s range. This seriously limits its ability to deliver video and voice over packet.

    Indoor/outdoor connections. Current wireless solutions generally deliver either effectively, but not both.

    Universal packet network. By utilizing the 4G-SIM concept and embracing the soft-switch-based gateway integration protocol such as H.248, the routing basis on personal presence is made possible.

    Automatic configuration. The combination of GPS technology and SIM card devices makes it possible to automatically rout into the proper connection point . The connection point attaching to the wireless LAN (WLAN), access point or wireless base station depends on the planning and preconfigurable criteria.
    The 4G device, as a DSP-based multi-feature gadget, can switch protocols on the GPS-directed command string. The optimal wireless protocol is determined based on geographical and network congestion. The DSP-based device should possess:

    Downloadable PHY protocols.

    Downloadable vocoders.

    Common ASIC blocks for multiple wireless protocols.

    Generic interfaces for the protocol stack layer.
    Key enablers for the all-digital 4G wireless networks, besides soft switch, are the H.248 standard, the Internet Protocol SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) and Ipv6. The technologies needed to deliver 4G wireless are multi-carrier code division multiple access and coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (COFDM).
    One way to provide universal connection is to have a bona fide software radio implemented on the device t o guarantee connection to W-CDMA, EDGE, WLAN and GPRS/GSM. The alternative is to have the Universal Access Point (UAP) deployed to limit the development and manufacturing cost for the mobiles. The mobile needs at least WLAN and 4G-modem functionality to stay connected and to hand off for large data rate transfer. COFDM is the clear technology of choice because of its superiority in modulating and demodulating high data rate. OFDM technology is already deployed in the IEEE 802.11a and will be the technology of choice for the 2.4-GHz-band IEEE 802.11g.

    The underlying technology for 4G wireless is the new radio technology OFDM with wireless multimedia streaming applications. It is scalable in data rate and therefore scalable in power. In the single application that demands the highest data rate, HDTV at 15 Mbits/s, the data rate is proportional to the number of the subchannels activated. OFDM handles multipath fading well with the frequency orthogonality. The technology has been selected for the 5-GHz and 2 .4-GHz wireless LAN standard.

    The challenges and solutions for OFDM technology are:

    Nonlinearity. Digital pre-distortion proves to be a possible solution.

    Timing synchronization. Symbol and sample level timing synchronization is critical to receiver performance. The classical cross-correlation-based symbol timing estimate provides satisfactory results. The theory that maximum length channel impulse response is typically shorter than the cyclic prefixes does not introduce intersymbol interference assuming that the symbol timing is fixed to the first sample.

    Carrier frequency offset. Interchannel interference spills over when carrier frequency offset is not detected and corrected and performance is severely degraded. A high-performance DSP-based OFDM engine facilitates fine tuning of the carrier synchronization algorithm.
    The flexibility, configurability and scalability of "anywhere, anytime, all IP" 4G wireless networks is distributed between UAP and the wireless terminal . A real world phone is possible through a mobile device equipped with flexible software architecture to configure and download in the air. Legacy phones work well with 4G UAP-guided networks.
    OFDM, one of the multicarrier modulations proposed as the 4G modulation technique, has already been successfully implemented in IEEE 802.11a to deliver 54 Mbits/s. It is also the technology of choice for IEEE802.11g to deliver 36 Mbits/s and for the widely deployed legacy IEEE 802.11b devices up to 54 Mbits/s with enhanced radio.

    The building blocks of OFDM technology are the fast Fourier transform and Viterbi engine. The superior performance in handling of intersymbol interference and the avoidance of single-frequency jamming simplifies the design. The well-known higher peak-to-average ratio demands a higher degree of linearity in the power amplifier while the additional guard band in the form of cyclic extension lowers the effective throughputs slightly.

    The software radio is geared to handle the RF and baseband challenges come with 4G. The secured IP connection and technology download ability, as well as configurability on the fly, make it possible to keep the minimum required video and audio coders on the silicon. This design feature enables the configuration of language-based code book, country-based voice activity detector parameters and the desired video and audio coders that the hosting UAP or basestation wants or can handle.

    Although the baseband modules will be activated one at a time, media processing is designed to be able to deliver any of the following combinations: voice only, simultaneous voice and data and videoconferencing. When simultaneous voice and data are delivered, the voice is configured to provide higher quality of service.

    Besides the power-efficient next-generation programmable DSP core, the intelligent DMA to build the system-on-chip and the interface and control of the RF unit, the extension of Ipv6 and SIP or a new remote function control (RFC) is needed. This will addr ess the protocol in setting up the universal link, the monitoring mechanism and the actual downloading and configuration. The chosen baseband module and the coder determine the QoS.

    There has been a constant battle between ASIC and DSP solutions for baseband implementation. The ASIC was the only solution when IS-95 came along because of its MIPS requirement and the lack of a high-performance DSP core designed for baseband processing. The high-performance baseband processor offloads the RF requirement and complements the RF.

    The vocoders and encryption algorithms in the WLAN are evolving. The DSP solution enables software radio implementation, flexibility and scalability. Being able to configure the DSP core would be a real plus in this application. For example, configurability would allow new instructions to be added to enhance baseband performance, to adapt memory space to optimize the silicon real estate and to tailor the subsystem interfaces to speed up the system design.

    The advantage of the ASIC vs. high-performance DSP is primarily in the area of power consumption, but this can be addressed by employing scalable algorithms to provide the right performance for the application. For example, with fractional OFDM channels activated, the frame error rate drops exponentially and the power decreases. The identity of line of sight also can alleviate the requirement in handling multipath, thus saving power.

    Besides the baseband and RF areas, 4G media streaming algorithms such as audio, video and low-bit-rate vocoders are all but impossible to implement in ASICs. The DSP provides integral solution to the presentation layer and cuts down the high-throughput communication requirement as well as power consumption and additional silicon space associated with it.

    The 4G building blocks are the 4G-mobiles as well as the 4G-UAP. Although the algorithms on them are similar and sometimes identical, the complexity, power consumption requirement and proliferation are quite different. The DSP-based solut ion enjoys much greater configurability, thus a higher degree of sharing between the two.

    The fourth-generation wireless network will have a WLAN infrastructure and mature IP standards to deliver wireless multimedia by the time trials begin. With OFDM technology already proved and embraced, 4G development will gain momentum. Over the next few years, any slowdown in 3G deployment will not slow 4G implementation, since 3G is not a stop but a passenger for the 4G-technology train.
     
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